Goals of the Smart Space
"When computation is part of the environment, this comfortable explicitness will disappear. Individuals will do whatever they normally do: move around, use objects, see and talk to each other. The computation in the environment may be able to facilitate these actions, and individuals may come to expect certain services, but they will usually not be doing things 'on the computer.'" (Mark, 1999)
- are environments that allow users to experience a mixed reality that combines virtual objects with real-world objects
- support the perception of real special effects - or special effects happening right where a person is in real time and in real space
- can superimpose useful information drawn from any aspect of human culture or imagination
- potentially change our notion of place
- the notion of a socially constructed reality could take on a new, more literal meaning
Flows of Information
"Since information takes up no real physical space, the same place can appear differently depending on who is perceiving it and for what purpose" (Spohrer, 1999)
Essentially this means that iformation can be displayed differently depending on the group of users interacting in a space:
- Different tribes may code or use a space differently than others
- The use of folsonomies would allow different groups to tag and code information for their own purposes
- Using 'smart devices' like an iTouch would allow users to see different things depending on their "tribe" by identifying them by this device
- If the devices were geographically aware (using GPS or some other locating system) then information could be 'posted' anywhere on the planet for other users " like posters for a science fair project" (Spohrer).
Smart Spaces in the Classroom
"Classrooms have an interesting characteristic: generations of students learn much the same material in them year after year. Year after year teachers find ways to address the highly individual insights and learning gaps of their students. Mediated spaces offer an opportunity to enhance the learning experience by expanding access to the interaction of students with each other and with teachers. Again, this must go beyond recording and playback. The space needs to be proactive in suggesting relevant information and pedagogical approaches based on previous experiences in this and other classrooms, on information from the Web, etc" (Mark, 1999)
Metaphors and Learning
I feel that this is a really important part of the process - we need to integrate suitable metaphors into the "classroom setting" to ensure that students make connections between the display/retrival/organization of the information.
G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, Metaphors We Live By, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL (1980).
Possible useful sources to read
(must find some newer sources!!!)
M. A. Coen, "Design Principles for Intelligent Environments," Proceedings of AAAI 1998 Spring Symposium on Intelligent Environments, Palo Alto, CA (March 23-25, 1998), pp. 36-43.
*G. Abowd, C. Atkeson, J. Brotherton, T. Enqvist, P. Gulley, and J. LeMon, "Investigating the Capture, Integration and Access Problem of Ubiquitous Computing in an Educational Setting," Proceedings of CHI '98 Los Angeles, CA (April 18-23, 1998), pp. 440-447.
G. D. Abowd, "Classroom 2000: An Experiment with the Instrumentation of a Living Educational Environment," IBM Systems Journal 38 No. 4, 508-530 (1999)*
Situated Information Spaces
*G. W. Fitzmaurice, "Situated Information Spaces and Spatially-Aware Palmtop Computers," Communications of the ACM 36 No. 7, 39-49 (July 1993).
G. W. Fitzmaurice, S. Zhai, and M. H. Chignell, "Virtual Reality and Palmtop Computers," ACM Transactions on Information Systems 11 No. 3, 197-218 (July 1993).
S. Long, D. Aust, G. D. Abowd, and C. Atkeson, "Cyberguide: Prototyping Context-Aware Mobile Applications," Proceedings of CHI '96 Vancouver, BC (April 13-18, 1996).
S. Long, R. Kooper, G. Abowd, and C. Atkeson, "Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Context-Aware Applications: The CyberGuide Case Study," MobiCom, ACM Press, New York (1996).
M. Krueger, "Environmental Technology: Making the Real World Virtual," Communications of the ACM 36 No. 7, 36 (July 1993). *
The original "smart spaces" paper:
- D. Englebart, Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework, AFOSR-3233 (October 1962), available at sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite/EngelbartPapers/B5_F18_ConceptFrameworkInd.html.*