• Collective Cognitive Responsibility for the Advancement of Knowledge
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knowledge building, collaborative learning, technology enhanced learning, CSILE, Knowledge Forum


Scardamalia, M. (2002). Collective Cognitive Responsibility for the Advancement of Knowledge. In B. Smith (Ed.), Liberal Education in a Knowledge Society, pp. 67-98. Chicago: Open Court.

Copyright Status

Material is subject to fair use exception

Resource Type

Papers and Reports

Demo Link


Intended Audience

Researchers, Teachers/Educators


Group responsibilities and roles in a knowledge building community with a system of socio-cognitive and technological determinants. Applied to observations of grade 3, 4, 5 and 6 classrooms and their knowledge building in various subject areas. Discusses Knowledge Forum as a technology that is specifically suitable for knowledge building. Also includes final sections on expanding possibilities and barriers to adoption.


Marlene Scardamalia

Topic Area

Research, Teaching, Educational Sciences

Home Page Link



  • A comprehensive article that examines ideas of "collective responsibility" of knowledge building communities using examples of expert teams in surgical units, whaling crews and classroom settings.
  • Particularly insightful are the 12 socio-cognitive and technological determinants of knowledge building. These are helpful criteria to analyse knowledge communities and interpret their dynamics. In this case they are using Knowledge Forum software but can be applied to other technologies (eg.wiki) used for knowledge building.
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